Posts Tagged Roman Catholic Church

@AlwaysCatholic Wishes You All A Most Blessed & Happy Easter!

15 April 2017

He is Risen!

He is truly Risen!

The Resurrection is depicted in “Christ Risen from the Tomb,” a painting by Italian Renaissance artist Bergognone. The artwork is from the Samuel H. Kress Collection at the National Gallery of Art in Washington. Easter, the feast of the Resurrection, is April 16th in the Latin-rite church this year. (CNS photo/courtesy of the National Gallery of Art) (March 27, 2012)

Praeconium Paschale – Exsultet (Latin Version)
The Singing of the Paschal Proclamation

Sir, give me Thy blessing.
C. May the Lord be on thy heart and on thy lips, that thou mayest worthily and fittingly proclaim His Paschal praise.
R. Amen.
Let the angelic choirs of Heaven now rejoice; let the divine Mysteries rejoice; and let the trumpet of salvation sound forth the victory of so great a King. Let the earth also rejoice, made radiant by such splendor; and, enlightened with the brightness of the eternal King, let it know that the darkness of the whole world is scattered. Let our mother the Church also rejoice, adorned with the brightness of so great a light; and let this temple resound with the loud acclamations of the people.

Wherefore I beseech you, most beloved brethren, who are here present in the wondrous brightness of this holy light, to invoke wtih me the mercy of almighty God. That He who has vouchsafed to admit me among the Levites, without any merits of mine, would pour forth the brightness of His light upon me, and enable me to perfect the praise of this wax candle. Through our Lord Jesus Christ His Son, Who with Him and the Holy Ghost liveth and reigneth one God for ever and ever. R. Amen.
V. The Lord be with you.
R. And with thy spirit.
V. Lift up thy hearts.
R. We have them lifted up to the Lord.
V. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God..
R. It is meet and just.

It is truly meet and right to proclaim with all our heart and all the affection of our mind, and with the ministry of our voices, the invisible God, the Father almighty, and His only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, who repaid for us to His eternal Father the debt of Adam, and by the merciful shedding of His Blood, cancelled the debt incurred by original sin. For this is the Paschal Festival; in which that true Lamb is slain, with Whose Blood the doorposts of the faithful are consecrated.

This is the night in which Thou didst formerly cause our forefathers, the children of Israel, when brought out of Egypt, to pass through the Red Sea with dry foot. This, therefore, is the night which dissipated the darkness of sinners by the light of the pillar. This is the night which at this time throughout the world restores to grace and unites in sanctity those that believe in Christ, and are separated from the vices of the world and the darkness of sinners. This is the night in which, destroying the chains of death, Christ arose victorious from the grave. For it would have profited us nothing to have been born, unless redemption had also been bestowed upon us. O wondrous condescension of Thy mercy towards us! O inestimable affection of love: that Thou mightest redeem a slave, Thou didst deliver up Thy Son! O truly needful sin of Adam, which was blotted out by the death of Christ! O happy fault, that merited to possess such and so great a Redeemer! O truly blessed night, which alone deserved to know the time and hour when Christ rose again from hell! This is the night of which it is written: And the night shall be as clear as the day; and the night is my light in my delights. Therefore the hallowing of this night puts to flight all wickedness, cleanses sins, and restores innocence to the fallen, and gladness to the sorrowful. It drives forth hatreds, it prepares concord, and brings down haughtiness.

Wherefore, in this sacred night, receive, O holy Father, the evening sacrifice of this incense, which holy Church renders to Thee by the hands of Thy ministers in the solemn offering of this wax candle, made out the work of bees. Now also we know the praises of this pillar, which the shining fire enkindles to the honor of God. Which fire, although divided into parts, suffers no loss from its light being borrowed. For it is nourished by the melting wax, which the mother bee produced for the substance of this precious light. O truly blessed night, which plundered the Egyptians and enriched the Hebrews! A night in which heavenly things are united to those of earth, and things divine to those which are of man.

We beseech Thee, therefore, O Lord, that this wax candle hallowed in honor of Thy Name, may continue to burn to dissipate the darkness of this night. And being accepted as a sweet savor, may be united with the heavenly lights. Let the morning star find its flame alight. That star, I mean, which knows no setting. He Who returning from hell, serenely shone forth upon mankind. We beseech Thee therefore, O Lord, that Thou wouldst grant peaceful times during this Paschal Festival, and vouchsafe to rule, govern, and keep with Thy constant protection us Thy servants, and all the clergy, and the devout people, together with our most holy Father, Pope N., and our Bishop N.. Have regard, also, for those who reign over us, and, grant them Thine ineffable kindness and mercy, direct their thoughts in justice and peace, that from their earthy toil, they may come to their heavenly reward with all Thy people. Through the same Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our Lord, who with Thee liveth and reigneth in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God: World without end. R. Amen.

Posted by Deo volente at his blog, Traditional Latin Mass in Maryland


Happy Candlemas! The Fortieth Day of Christmas

2 February 2017

2 February 2017

Posted on 2 February 2013 Anno Domini by Fr.John Zuhlsdorf at his blog,
What Does the Prayer Really Say?

Today is the final “peak” arising from the liturgical cycle of Advent/Christmas/Epiphany. Today, called in the traditional way and according to the older Roman calendar the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Holy Church would cease to sing the Marian antiphon associated with Christmas,

It is forty days since Christmas.

In the physical world, we in the Northern hemisphere are beginning to notice more and more the growing of the light of day. The seemingly endless darkness of the short days has finally in a noticeable way been attenuated. I have noticed in the last couple days that the birds have broken their silence and are beginning to sing in a different way, even though winter here as far from over. Today’s feast is also about light, in the broader symbolic sense.

This feast has its name from the Blessed Virgin, because the Law in Leviticus required her to go to the temple for purification after giving birth. The Lord did not need to be baptized by John in the river, for He had nothing to repent. Mary did not need purification, for she was spotless. But they desired to fulfill the Law. This feast also reminds us of the beautiful tradition of the “Churching” of women after childbirth, a special blessing given by the Church, which has alas fallen into desuetude. “Churching” was done in honor also of this moment in the life Christ’s Mother.

This is, however, really a feast in honor of the Lord: He is being offered to the Father in a foreshadowing of His greater Sacrifice for our salvation. The theme of offering, of sacrifice draws our eyes away from looking back at Christmas and Epiphany forward to the Passion and Easter.

You remember the story from the Gospel, in Luke 2. Mary and Joseph come to the temple in Jerusalem to fulfill the Law. Firstborn males had to be dedicated to the Lord. The old woman Anna and the old man Simeon had the special grace from the Lord to have their dearest desires fulfilled before they died: to see the Messiah. It is in this moment that Simeon makes the prophecy about the sacrificial sufferings Mary will endure and he speaks his great Nunc dimittis, which Holy Church sings in the darkness at the end of the day for Compline.

In the traditional Roman liturgy today in larger churches there would be a special blessing of candles and a procession before Mass would begin. The chants sung for the rite contain many references to light. Also, a lighted candle is to be held during the reading of the Gospel and during the Roman Canon. The candle brings to mind also our baptism.

In a way, the faithful really ought to have candles at all Masses. But now, in High Masses, the “touchbearers” fulfill this role for the congregation. Remember that the next time you see the candles come in: that’s you up there.

Remember: Holy Church gives us candles so that we will use them.

For the rest of the post, click HERE

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From the blog, Catholic Harbor of Faith and Morals

Candlemas

Luke ii. 29: “No Thou dost dismiss Thy servant, O Lord, according to Thy Word, in peace. Because my eyes have seen thy salvation, . . . a Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people, Israel.”

The angel-lights of Christmas morn,
Which shot across the sky,
Away they pass at Candlemas,
They sparkle and they die.

We wait along the penance-tide
Of solemn fast and prayer,
Whilst song is hushed, and lights grow dim
In the sin-laden air.

Comfort of earth is brief at best,
Although it be divine;
Like funeral lights for Christmas gone,
Old Simeon’s tapers shine.

And while the sword in Mary’s soul
Is driven home, we hide
In our own hearts, and count the wounds
Of passion and of pride.

And then for eight long weeks and more,
We wait in twilight grey,
Till the High Candle sheds a beam
On Holy Saturday.

And still, though Candlemas be spent,
And alleluias o’er,
Mary is music in our need,
And Jesus light in store.

The Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary

This great solemnity, which closes the holy season of Christmas, has been established in commemoration of the two last mysteries of our Saviour’s Birth and Infancy.

The most pure and beautiful Virgin, in obedience to the law, presented the child Jesus in the temple, offering a couple of turtle-doves for her purification, and five sicles as a ransom for her first-born, Jesus. On this day is fulfilled the prophecy of Aggeus concerning the Messiah, Agg. ii. 8: “Yet one little while . . . and I will move all nations: and the Desired of all nations shall come; and I will fill this house with glory.” This day St. Simeon and holy Anna, full of the Holy Ghost, recognise our Lord and welcome Him into the temple, as the Salvation, the Light, and the Peace of the world.

Wax candles are solemnly blessed on this day, in commemoration of our Lord, whom they represent as the Light of the world: “Three things,” says St. Anselm of Canterbury, “may be considered in the blest candle: the wax, which is the production of the virginal bee, is the Flesh of our Lord; the wick, which is within, is His Soul; the flame, which burns on the top, is His Divinity.” These blest candles are to be carried in procession, in remembrance of that wondrous procession made in the temple by our Lady, St. Joseph, St. Simeon, and holy Anna. They should also be kept, to be used by the faithful either on land or sea, and especially to be lit near the bed of a dying Christian, as a symbol of the immortality merited for us by Christ, and as a pledge of the protection of our Lady.

 

 

A Prayer for Candlemas Day

images-29
Lord Jesus Christ,
You are the true Light
enlightening every soul born into this world.
Today we celebrate the feast of Candlemas.
Before Holy Mass,
the priest blesses the candles,
whose wax is the humming summer’s work of countless bees.
The flames of these candles
will shed their light upon the altar at the Holy Sacrifice.
Help us to realize,
this day and every day,
that our own humdrum daily work,
if it is done for love of You,
and in union with the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass,
will be a supernatural work,
and will shine brightly before You for all eternity.
Help us realize, too,
each time we see the blessed candles at Holy Mass,
or at the bedside of the sick,
that they are a symbol of Yourself,
the Light shining in the darkness of this world.
Help us to live in that Light,
to make it our own,
and to kindle it in the souls of others,
increasing the area Of light
and lessening the darkness in the World This,
dear Lord, help us do,
through the merits of Your own dear mother, Mary,
who did everything for love of
You, from the moment she brought You into this world
till the day she joined You in the realms of light at her death.
Then we, too, working for You,
shall be light-bearers who will help to spread Your kingdom on earth,
and increase the number of those who dwell in heaven,
the city of eternal light.

Amen.

Source: Catholic.org


h/t: @RoomDesign3 on Twitter. Thanks.


Bishop Morlino calls canonizations a ‘special gift from God’

8 May 2014

Bishop’s Column
Written by Bishop Robert C. Morlino at the Madison Catholic Herald
Thursday, May. 08, 2014

Bishop Robert C. Morlino and nearly one million others hear the proclamation of the Gospel at the Canonization Mass on April 27 in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican. (Photo by Servizio Fotografico/L’Osservatore Romano)

Bishop Robert C. Morlino and nearly one million others hear the proclamation of the Gospel at the Canonization Mass on April 27 in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican. (Photo by Servizio Fotografico/L’Osservatore Romano)

Dear Friends,

Last week I was blessed to take part in the wonderful Canonization ceremony and Mass of Thanksgiving for St. John Paul II and St. John XXIII. The experience certainly was one of the most precious of my entire life.

I was blessed to visit Rome for the first time in the mid-’70s and God’s providence has enabled me to return a good number of times. Yet, never once have I seen Rome so crowded as it was during those days leading up to the Canonizations. More so than the crowds that might gather at a secular event such as a World’s Fair, I was reminded of the crowds that fill the streets at World Youth Days.

‘Reverential joy’ in the air

There was not only a wonderful spirit of devotion, but also a tremendous number of energetic young people who moved around the city, even through the night, attending the numerous programs and opportunities for prayer in the various churches around Rome.

During those days, it was very easy to stop and chat with complete strangers and even to feel very bonded to them almost instantly. There was a very clear and proximate sense of the Universal Church and of our unity. That was the atmosphere, the environment against the background of which this wonderful celebration took place.

There was what I would call a “reverential joy” in the air, and despite the large numbers of people, that reverential joy often manifested itself through silence.

The silent moments during the Mass of Canonization were very full and almost miraculous given the one million people who were gathered in close quarters. The silence spoke volumes, as with so many languages and cultures represented (not to mention the rest of the world watching), we were able to be united in prayer on a very large and very profound scale.

By sheer providence (and absolutely nothing else), I wound up with a first row seat to
concelebrate the Canonization Mass with Pope Francis. This in itself allowed the splendor of the liturgy around me to envelop me at a very deep level. The strong beauty and glory of the moment was manifest in the ritual and the music, in the beauty of the vestments and other gestures. It was something that grabbed my soul at a very deep level.

And then there was the presence of Pope Francis, along with Pope-emeritus Benedict, who had come out of his seclusion to visit with old friends before the Mass. Benedict is clearly an inspiration to Pope Francis, and their embrace provided a very strong inspiration to me and elicited a strong cheer from the whole crowd. That remarkable gesture of unity tells us tons about the real hope that we can have in the Church for unity among ourselves.

The new saints

And then there were St. John XXIII and St. John Paul II. George Weigel calls them the “bookends of the Second Vatican Council.” And so they are.

Pope Francis accentuated Pope John XXIII as a man of hope, open to the Spirit, and Pope John Paul II as a man of courage and “Pope of the Family.”

Both trusted completely in the Holy Spirit to bring about His intent, and both were most solidly rooted in tradition and yet in the desire to bring about real reform in continuity with the past. And indeed Pope Francis is the heir to this legacy, as he has publicly proclaimed.

The sense of Church, that one could almost taste in this celebration with almost 1,000 bishops and so many thousands of priests, was a wellspring of joy much as our two new Saints were popes both of hope and of courage.

For many of us, our lives have been defined by the papacy on St. John Paul. Especially so many of our younger people find their Catholic identity rooted in his hope, his strength, and his sacrificial witness — from the moment he began his pontificate, to the extreme suffering of his final illness before he went to the House of the Father.

So, too, Pope John XXIII opened new doors and windows left and right, wanting the truth of Christ in its integrity to flow out through those doors and windows to embrace and to overwhelm the world with the love of Christ.

He’s often considered a reformer, yet St. John XXIII was also a man of tradition and of history. It’s noteworthy that one of the first things St. John XXIII attempted to do as Pope was to restore the Latin language to the study of theology in seminaries. Shortly before, an attempt had been made to switch the language for the study of theology to the vernacular. But Pope St. John XXIII, seeing the difficulties involved with the change, wanted the truth proclaimed in its integrity and made attempts to stem the change and restore Latin.
‘An incredible gift’

Along with Pope Francis and Pope Benedict, the awesome presence of these two new Saints lovingly watching over the crowds and over our celebration was unmistakable and an incredible gift. Their presence was also a very strong testimony of Christ present to us through those who are Successors of Peter even up to the present moment.

The ceremony and Mass of Canonization are available on the internet, and I strongly encourage our faithful in the Diocese of Madison to take advantage of the opportunity to view this marvelous celebration.

Please enter into it prayerfully so as to witness the Holy Spirit so clearly revealing Himself in that celebration. See the loving unity manifest between Popes Francis and Benedict and see the loving unity in continuity revealed through the Petrine ministries of St. John XXIII and St. John Paul II, between Pope Benedict and Pope Francis.
Universality of the Church

This is a unique opportunity to experience the universality of the Church — that is, the universality of Christ’s love for His people, through our Church. It is a wonderful moment to allow oneself, without reservation, to experience and to express love for the Church and for the Holy Fathers.

Only the Catholic Church could engage such a worldwide celebration as She has done many times in the past. Indeed the Church is alive.

Please let us not allow this precious moment to pass us by as something that will be quickly forgotten. This is such an important moment for the coming to life of the true meaning of the Second Vatican Council. This moment is a special gift from God and we would be gravely mistaken to allow this Kairos, this time of visitation from the Lord in a very direct and special way, to pass us by.

Thank you for reading this. God bless each one of you. Christ is risen; indeed He is risen!

morlinocolumnThis column is the bishop’s communication with the faithful of the Diocese of Madison.WI Any wider circulation reaches beyond the intention of the bishop.


BEST NEWS YET! New Pope will adore the Blessed Sacrament before being presented to the world

12 March 2013

12 Mqrch 2013 Anno Domini
Posted by Sarah Campbell


New Pope will have adoration before his presentation

By David Uebbing
Vatican City, Mar 11, 2013 / 10:04 am (CNA/EWTN News).

In a change to past papal elections, the new Pope will have the chance to adore Jesus in the Eucharist before he makes his appearance on the central balcony of St. Peter’s Basilica. (Emphasis added by Always Catholic)

Vatican press office director Father Federico Lombardi told journalists March 11 that, “when the Pope goes to the loggia, he passes the Pauline Chapel and will stop there for a brief moment of personal prayer and silence in front of the Blessed Sacrament.”

The Vatican press office was buzzing with journalists looking for news about the March 12 Conclave, which will begin at around 5:00 in the evening.

Before looking ahead to the voting, Fr. Lombardi reviewed the cardinals final general meeting, which was held this morning.

The cardinals made 28 interventions before the assembly voted to end their meetings, given that the Conclave will begin on Tuesday.

Fr. Lombardi reminded the media of the general schedule for the Conclave and then later walked through the ceremony that occurs immediately after a new Pope is chosen.

Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, the cardinal deacon, will ask the candidate if he accepts his “canonical election as Supreme Pontiff” and what name will use.

If he says yes, then white smoke is sent up while the Pope goes to the Room of Tears, vests in his papal garments and then returns to the Sistine Chapel.

The cardinals then hold a small ceremony that involves prayer, reading the Scriptures and a time for the cardinals to offer their congratulations to the new Pope.

This is followed by the singing of the Te Deum, the Church’s traditional hymn of thanks to God, and a procession out of the chapel.

As the new Pope makes his way between the Sistine Chapel and the balcony where he is presented to the people, he will stop for a brief moment of personal prayer and adoration in the Pauline Chapel.

Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran will then introduce the new Pope with the famous Latin words “Habemus papam!” This will be followed by the name he has picked.

The total amount of time that will lapse between the appearance of the white smoke and the Pope’s appearance on St. Peter’s balcony will be about 50 minutes.

The first vote of the Conclave could take place on Tuesday evening, and Fr. Lombardi believes that the smoke will appear around 8:00 p.m.


† The Schedule of the Conclave †

12 March 2013

12 March 2013 Anno Domini
Posted by Sarah Campbell

Vatican City —All times are listed for Rome, which is 5 hours ahead EST

First Day (March 12, 2013)
7:00 a.m.: Cardinals move in to Santa Marta
10:00 a.m.: Missa pro Eligendo Pontifice / Mass for the Election of the Roman Pontiff at St. Peter’s Basilica

3.45p Transfer from the Domus Santae Marthae to the Apostolic Palace
4.30p Procession from the Pauline Chapel and Entrance into the Sistine Chapel
4.45p Individual Oath by each Cardinal and possible first ballot
7.15p The Divine Office (Vespers) in the Sistine Chapel
7.30p Transfer to the Domus Santae Marthae
8:00p Dinner

Schedule for Subsequent Days
6.30 – 7.30a Breakfast
7.45a Transfer to Pauline Chapel
8.15 – 9.15a Holy Sacrifice of the Mass in the Pauline Chapel
9.30a Mid-morning Prayer (Terce) from Divine Office in Sistine Chapel and Voting
12.30p Transfer to the Domus Santae Marthae
1:00p Lunch
4:00p Transfer to Apostolic Palace
4.50p Voting in the Sistine Chapel
7.15p Vespers from Divine Office in the Sistine Chapel
7.30p Transfer to the Domus Santae Marthae
8:00p Dinner

Beginning at 3:45 p.m., Cardinals will be transferred from the St. Martha House, the building where the Cardinals will reside during the Conclave, to the Vatican.

From there, Cardinals will process from the Pauline Chapel to the Sistine Chapel where they will pray Vespers and officially enter the Conclave at 5:00 p.m.

The first possible smoke sighting will be on Tuesday evening at around 7:00 p.m.

If the smoke is black, the Cardinals will reconvene the next morning beginning with Mass at 8:15 a.m. in the Pauline Chapel and mid-morning prayer. Voting will begin again at approximately 9:30 a.m.

There will be four votes per day, with two in the morning and two in the afternoon. Smoke is always sent up after the two morning votes – around noon – and then again after the afternoon set of votes – around 7:00 p.m..

However, if the first vote of either the morning or afternoon set results in the election of a new Pope, the smoke will be seen earlier.

The Cardinals will follow this schedule until a new Pope is elected.

During the press conference, it was revealed that the main reason for Tuesday start of the Conclave was chosen to allow more time for preparations to the Sistine Chapel and St. Martha House.

Then in the Sistine Chapel, the Cardinal-electors will take their oath, beginning with the senior Cardinal Bishop-elector, Cardinal Giovanni Batista Re, who leads the Conclave, and then the famous ‘extra omnes’ or ‘everybody else out’ order will be said by the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, Monsignor Guido Marini.

Source: The Catholic World Report, and The Crescat


“Want to know who the new pope is *seconds* before your friends?” via CWR Blog

12 March 2013

posted by Catherine Harmon
at The Catholic World Report Blog
11 March 2013 Anno Domini

You know you do.

What you’ll want to do is bone up on the Latin (accusative case) names of the possible candidates, compiled by CNS in this handy list.* See below

Chilean Cardinal Medina announces name of new pope in 2005

After the cardinals elect a new pope, and assuming he isn’t the elected, Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, the senior cardinal-deacon, will appear on the St. Peter’s Basilica balcony to make the announcement in Latin (the official formula for the announcement is here). The first indication of who the new pope is will be his first name—so, “Angelum” for Angelo; “Franciscum” for Francis, Francisco, or Franc; “Timotheum” for Timothy; etc.

Of course, the usefulness of this list of Latin names will depend in part on who is chosen – if we all hear “Odilonem,” it will immediately be clear that the cardinals have elected Cardinal Odilo Pedro Scherer of Sao Paolo. If Cardinal Tauran announces “Ioannem,” on the other hand, it could be one of nine different cardinals named John, Juan, Giovanni, Sean, or Joao.
In that case, just sit tight and wait a few seconds for the announcement of the cardinal last name, and his newly chosen papal name.

* Alphabetical list of cardinal electors’ first names in Latin

Balcony where the name of the cardinal elected pope will be announced in Latin. (CNS/Paul Haring)

VATICAN CITY — Here is an alphabetical list of the cardinal electors’ first names in Latin, in the accusative case, which is likely to be that used when announcing the name of the new pope.

Several cardinals are listed twice because they may be referred to by their baptismal name, given name or religious name. For instance, Indian Cardinal Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal, major archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, is listed twice because the “Acta Apostolicae Sedis,” (The Official Acts of the Holy See) has used both versions. U.S. Cardinal William J. Levada and Dutch Cardinal Willem Jacobus Eijk of Utrecht are listed twice because “Gulielmum” and “Villelmum” are both acceptable versions of their name.

Albertum
– Albert Malcolm Ranjith of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Aloisium
– Luis Antonio Tagle of Manila, Philippines.
– Lluis Martinez Sistach of Barcelona, Spain.

Andream
– Andre Vingt-Trois of Paris.

Angelum
– Angelo Amato, prefect of the Congregation for Saints’ Causes.
– Angelo Bagnasco of Genoa, Italy.
– Angelo Comastri, archpriest of St. Peter’s Basilica.
– Angelo Scola of Milan.

Ansgarium
– Oscar Rodriguez Maradiaga of Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

Antonium
– Antonio Canizares Llovera, prefect of the Vatican Congregation for Divine Worship and the Sacraments.
– Antonios Naguib, former Coptic Catholic patriarch, Egypt.
– Anthony Olubunmi Okogie of Lagos, Nigeria.

Antonium Mariam
– Antonio Maria Rouco Varela of Madrid.
– Antonio Maria Veglio, president of the Pontifical Council for Migrants and Travelers.

Attilium
– Attilio Nicora, president emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See.

Audrys
– Audrys Juozas Backis of Vilnius, Lithuania.

Augustinum
– Agostino Vallini, papal vicar for Rome.

Bachara or Becharam
– Bechara Rai, Maronite patriarch.

Basilium Clementem
Baselios Cleemis (Isaac) Thottunkal, major archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.

Carolum
– Carlos Amigo Vallejo of Seville, Spain.
– Carlo Caffarra, of Bologna, Italy.
– Karl Lehmann of Mainz, Germany.

Casimirum
– Kazimierz Nycz of Warsaw, Poland.

Christophorum
– Christoph Schonborn of Vienna.

Claudium
– Claudio Hummes, retired prefect of the Congregation for Clergy.

Conradum
– Kurt Koch, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.

Crescentium
– Crescenzio Sepe of Naples, Italy.

Daniel or Danielem
– Daniel N. DiNardo of Galveston-Houston.

Dionigium
– Dionigi Tettamanzi of Milan.

Dominicum
– Domenico Calcagno, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See.
– Dominik Duka of Prague, Czech Republic.

Donaldum
– Donald W. Wuerl of Washington.

Eduinum
– Edwin F. O’Brien, grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre.

Emmanuelem
– Manuel Monteiro de Castro, head of the Apostolic Penitentiary.

Ennium
– Ennio Antonelli, retired president of Pontifical Council for the Family.

Ferdinandum
– Fernando Filoni, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.

Franciscum
– Francesco Coccopalmerio, president of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts.
– Francis E. George of Chicago.
– Francesco Monterisi, retired secretary of the Congregation for Bishops.
– Francisco Robles Ortega of Guadalajara, Mexico.
– Franc Rode, retired prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life.

Franciscum Xaverium
– Francisco Javier Errazuriz Ossa of Santiago de Chile.

Georgium
– George Alencherry of Ernakulam-Angamaly, major archbishop of Syro-Malabar Catholic Church.
– Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
– George Pell of Sydney.
– Jorge Urosa Savino of Caracas, Venezuela.

Gabrielem
– Gabriel Zubeir Wako of Khartoum, Sudan.

Gerardum
– Geraldo Majella Agnelo of Sao Salvador da Bahia, Brazil.

Godefridum
– Godfried Danneels of Mechelen-Brussels.

Gulielmum
– Willem Jacobus Eijk of Utrecht, Netherlands.
– William Joseph Levada, retired prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Iacobum
– James M. Harvey, archpriest of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls.
– Jaime Ortega Alamino of Havana.

Ioachim
– Joachim Meisner of Cologne, Germany.

Ioannem
– Sean Brady of Armagh, Northern Ireland.
– Joao Braz de Aviz, prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life.
– Juan Cipriani Thorne of Lima, Peru.
– Giovanni Lajolo, retired president of the commission governing Vatican City State.
– John Njue of Nairobi, Kenya.
– John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan of Abuja, Nigeria.
– Sean Patrick O’Malley of Boston.
– Juan Sandoval Iniguez of Guadalajara, Mexico.
– John Tong Hon of Hong Kong.

Ioannem Baptistam
– Giovanni Battista Re, retired prefect of the Congregation for Bishops.
– Jean-Baptiste Pham Minh Man, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Ioannem Cladium
– Jean-Claude Turcotte of Montreal.

Ioannem Ludovicum
– Jean-Louis Tauran, president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue.

Ioannem Franciscum
– Gianfranco Ravasi, president of the Pontifical Council for Culture.

Ioannem Patricium
– Sean Patrick O’Malley of Boston.

Ioannem Petrum
– Jean-Pierre Ricard of Bordeaux, France.

Iosephum
– Giuseppe Bertello, president of the commission governing Vatican City State.
– Giuseppe Betori of Florence, Italy.
– Josip Bozanic of Zagreb, Croatia.
– Jose da Cruz Policarpo, Lisbon, Portugal.
– Giuseppe Versaldi, president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.

Iulium
– Julio Terrazas Sandoval of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

Iustinum
– Justin Rigali of Philadelphia.

Isaac
– Baselios Cleemis (Isaac) Thottunkal, major archbishop of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.

Laurentium
– Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya of Kinshasa, Congo.

Ivanum
– Ivan Dias, retired prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.

Leonardum
– Leonardo Sandri, prefect of the Congregation for Eastern Churches.

Marcum
– Marc Ouellet, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops.

Maurum
– Mauro Piacenza, prefect of the Congregation for Clergy.

Nicolaum
– Nicolas Lopez Rodriguez of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

Norbertum
– Norberto Rivera Carrera of Mexico City.

Odilonem
– Odilo Pedro Scherer of Sao Paulo.

Osvaldum
– Oswald Gracias of Mumbai, India.

Patricium
– Sean Patrick O’Malley of Boston.

Paulum
– Paolo Sardi, a former official in the Vatican Secretariat of State.
– Paul Josef Cordes, retired president of Pontifical Council Cor Unum.
– Paolo Romeo of Palermo, Italy.

Petrum
– Peter Erdo of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary.
– Peter Turkson, president of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace.

Philippum
– Philippe Barbarin of Lyon, France.

Polycarpum
– Polycarp Pengo of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Radulfum
– Raul Vela Chiriboga, retired archbishop of Quito, Ecuador.

Raimundum
– Raymond L. Burke, prefect of the Supreme Court of the Apostolic Signature.
– Raymundo Damasceno Assis of Aparecida, Brazil.

Rainardum
– Reinhard Marx of Munich and Freising, Germany.

Rainerium
– Rainer Maria Woelki of Berlin.

Raphaelem
– Raffaele Farina, retired head of the Vatican Secret Archives and the Vatican Library.

Robertum
– Robert Sarah, president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum.

Rogerium
– Roger Mahony, retired archbishop of Los Angeles.

Ruben
– Ruben Salazar Gomez of Bogota, Colombia.

Sanctum
– Santos Abril Castello, archpriest of Basilica of St. Mary Major.

Severium
– Severino Poletto of Turin, Italy.

Stanislaum
– Stanislaw Dziwisz of Krakow, Poland.
– Stanislaw Rylko, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity.

Telesphorum
– Telesphore Toppo, of Ranchi, India.

Tharsicium
– Tarcisio Bertone, secretary of state.

Theodorum
– Theodore-Adrien Sarr of Dakar, Senegal.

Thomam
– Thomas C. Collins of Toronto.

Timotheum
– Timothy M. Dolan of New York.

Valtherum
– Walter Kasper, retired president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.

Velasium
– Velasio De Paolis, papal delegate overseeing reform of the Legionaries of Christ and Regnum Christi.

Vilfridum
– Wilfrid F. Napier of Durban, South Africa.

Villelmum
– Willem Jacobus Eijk of Utrecht, Netherlands.
– William Joseph Levada, retired prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Vincentium
– Vinko Puljic of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Zenonem
– Zenon Grocholewski, prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education.


A Last Look on Video INSIDE “Sede Vacante” & The Conclave

11 March 2013

11 March 2013 Anno Domini
Posted by Sarah Campbell

On this last night before the the actual beginning of the conclave process let’s take a video tour of the last 11 days via Rome Reports.com.

Camerlengo seals off Papal apartment, takes control of Vatican as Sede Vacante begins

March 1, 2013

(Romereports.com) Just moments after the Sede Vacante, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, who is also the Camerlengo, took temporary control of the Vatican. His first task was to seal off the Papal Apartment. Other members of the Vatican Curia were waiting for him, including the vice camarlengo, Pier Luigi Celata.

“It’s eight o’clock. It’s time to take care of this responsibility.”

Once inside the building members of the Apostolic Chamber prayed for the future Pope, before sealing off the papal apartments.

“Give your Church a worthy Pope.”

Accompanied by Mons. Angelo Becciu who serves as the Substitute Secretariat of State, the group proceeded to seal the papal apartments.

Cardinal Bertone officially sealed off the Papal apartments with the help of a notary.

A member of the Swiss Guard was waiting outside the office. Sealing off the papal apartment is not just a tradition, it’s also listed under Canon Law to prevent any type of forgery.
Now the Catholic Church is waiting for the successor of Benedict XVI, who from now on will be known as Pope Benedict XVI emeritus.

NOW, THE REST OF THE TOUR… PLEASE CLICK PLAYLIST ON LEFT BOTTOM CORNER OF THIS VIDEO FOR THE REST OF THE VIDEOS & THE REST WILL PLAY AUTOMATICALLY… THANK YOU


Feast of the Chair of St Peter at Antioch – History, Propers & Audio of Chants

22 February 2013

Image Credit: Principium Unitatis - Feast of the Chair of St. Peter the Apostle

That Saint Peter, before he went to Rome, founded the see of Antioch is attested by many Saints of the earliest times, including St. Ignatius of Antioch and Pope St. Clement I. It was just that the Prince of the Apostles should take under his particular care and surveillance this city, which was then the capital of the East, and where the faith so early took such deep roots as to give birth there to the name of Christians. There his voice could be heard by representatives of the three largest nations of antiquity — the Hebrews, the Greeks and the Latins. St. John Chrysostom says that St. Peter was there for a long period; Pope St. Gregory the Great claims that though he was seven years Bishop of Antioch. He did not reside there at all times, but governed its apostolic activity with the wisdom his mandate assured.

If as tradition affirms, he was twenty-five years in Rome, the date of his establishment at Antioch must be within three years after Our Lord’s Ascension, for he would have gone to Rome in the second year of Claudius. He no doubt left Jerusalem when the persecution which followed St. Steven’s martyrdom broke out (Acts 8:1), and remained in Antioch until he escaped miraculously from prison and from the hands of Herod Agrippa, while in Jerusalem in 43 at the time of the Passover. (Acts 12) Knowing he would be pursued to Antioch, his well-known center of activity, he went to Rome.

In the first ages it was customary, especially in the East, for every Christian to observe the anniversary of his Baptism. On that day each one renewed his baptismal vows and gave thanks to God for his Heavenly adoption. That memorable day they regarded as their spiritual birthday. The bishops similarly kept the anniversary of their consecration, as appears from four sermons of Pope St. Leo the Great on the anniversary of his accession to the pontifical dignity. These commemorations were frequently continued by the people after their bishops’ decease, out of respect for their memory. The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter was instituted from very early times. St. Leo says we should celebrate the Chair of St. Peter with no less joy than the day of his martyrdom, for as in the latter he was exalted to a throne of glory in Heaven, by the former he was installed Head of the Church on earth.

As this feast most often falls in Lent, certain churches celebrated this feast at an earlier date, in January. Hence the two feasts of the Chair of St. Peter, which the Church distinguished by connecting the more ancient one on February 22, with the Chair at Antioch and that on January 18 with the Chair of Rome. St. Peter resided indeed for some time at Antioch about the years 51-52.

It is to St. Peter, who proclaimed that Jesus was “the Christ, Son of the living God” (Gospel) when all Palestine rejected Him, that the Master commits the power to bind Satan by closing the gates of hell to open for us the gates of Heaven (Gospel). And the Head of the Church teaches us in his first Epistle that it is “by faith in the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ that the Holy Ghost sanctifies us and reconciles us to the Father.”

The commemoration of Saint Paul immediately follows the Collect, Secret and Postcommunion of the feast, for the liturgy does not separate those who have so justly been called the two pillars of the Church.

Double Major of the Feast of the Chair of St Peter at Antioch

White 2nd Class

Introit

Ecclus. 45:30; Ps. 131:1
Statuit ei Dominus testamentum pacis, et principem fecit eum: ut sit illi sacerdotii dignitas in aeternum. (Psalm) Memento Domine, David: et omnis mansuetudinis ejus. Gloria Patri. Statuit ei Dominus…

The Lord made to him a covenant of peace, and made him a prince: that the dignity of priesthood should be to him for ever. (Psalm) O Lord, remember David and all his meekness. Glory be to the Father. The Lord made to him…

Collect(s)

Deus, qui beato Petro Apostolo tuo, collatis calvibus regni coelesti, ligandi atqu solvendi pontificum tradidisti: concede: ut, intercessionis ejus auxilio, a peccatorum nostrorum nexibus liberemut: Qui vivis et regna.

O God, Who by the delivering to Thy blessed Apostle Peter the keys of the kingdom of heaven, didst confer upon him the pontifical power of binding and of loosing, grant that, by the help of his intercession, we may be freed from the bonds for sin: Who livest and reignest.

Second Collect of St. Paul the Apostle
Deus qui miltitudeinem gentium beati Pauli Apostoli praedicatione docuisti: da nobis, quaesumus: ut cujus commemorationem colimus ejus apud te patrocinia sentiamus. Per Dominunm nostrum.

O God, Who by the preaching of the blessed Apostle Paul didst teach many nations: grant us we beseech Thee, that we who venerate his memory may feel the benefit of his patronage. Through our Lord.

Commemoration of St. Prisca
Da, quaesumus omnipotens Deus: ut, qui beatae Priscae Virginis et Martyris tuae natalitia colimus; et annua solemnitate laetemur, et tantae fidei proficiamus exemplo, Per Dominum nostrum.

Grant, we beseech Thee, almighty God, that we who celebrate the birthday of blessed Prisca, Thy Virgin and Martyr, may rejoice in her yearly festival and profit by the example of her yearly festival outstanding faith. Through our Lord.

Epistle

I Pet. 1:1-7
Petrus Apostolus Jesu Christi, electis advenis dispersionis Ponti, Galatie, Cappadociae, Asiae et Bithyniae, secumdum praesecientiam Dei Patris, in sactificationem Spiritus, in obedientiam, et aspersionem sanguninis Jesu Christi: gratia vobis, et pax multiplicetur. Benedictus Deus, et Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui secundum misericordiam suam magnam regeneravit nos in spem vivam, per resurrectionem Jesu Christi ex mortuis in here ditatem in corruptabilem ,et incontaminatam, et imarcescibilem conservtam in coelis in vobis, qui in virute Dei, custodimiini per fidem in salutem, paratam revelari in tempore novissimo. In quo exultabitis modicum nunc si oportet contistari in variis tentatinibus: ut probatio vestrae fidei multo pretiosior auro (quod per ignem probatur) inveniatur in laudem, et gloriam, et honorem in revelatione Jesu Christi Domini nostri.

Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ to the strangers dispersed through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, unto the sanctification of the spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: grace unto you and peace be multiplied. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who according to His great mercy hath regenerated us unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, unto an inheritance, incorrupible and undefiled and that cannot fade, reserved in heaven for you, who by the power of God are kept by faith unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time, Wherein you shall greatly rejoice, if now you must be for a little time made sorrowful in diverse temptations: that the trial of your faith, much more precious than gold. (which is tried by the fire), maybe found unto praise and glory and honor, at the appearance of Jesus Christ our Lord.

Gradual

Ps. 106:32,31
Exaltent eum in ecclesia plebis: et in cathedra seniorum laudent eum. Confiteantur Domino misericordiae ejus et mirabilia ejus filliis hominum. Let them exalt him the church of the people and praise him in the chair of the ancients. Let the mercies of the Lord give glory to him: and His wonderful works to the children of men.

Alleluia

Mt. 16:18
Alleluia, alleluia. Tu es Petrus et super hance petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. Alleluia. Alleluia, alleluia.

Thou are Peter, and upon this Rock I will build My Church. Alleluia, Alleluia, alleluia.

Gospel

LK. 12:35-40
In illo tempore: Venit Jesus in partes Caesarea Philippi et interrogabat discipulos suos, dicens: Quem dicunt homines esse Filium hominis? At illi dixerunt: Alii Joannem Baptistam, alli autem Eliam, alii vero Jeremiam, aut unum ex Prophetis. Dicit illis Jesus: Vos autem quem me esse dicitis? Respondens Simon Petrus, dixit: Tu es Christus Filius Dei viv. Respondens autem Jesus, dixit ei: Beatus es, Simon Bar Jona: quia caro et sanguis non revelavit tibi, sed Pater meus, qui in coelis est. Et ego dico tibi, quia tui es Petrus et super hance petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. Et portae inferi non praevalebunt adversus eam: et tibi dabo claves regni coelorum. Quodcumque ligaveros super terram erit ligatum et in coelis. Et quodcumque solveris super terram erit solutum et in coelis.

At that time, Jesus came into the quarters of Caesarea Phillippi, and He asked His disciples saying: Whom do men say that the Son of man is? But they said: Some, John the Baptist, and other some, Elias, and others, Jermias, or one of the prophets. Jesus saith to them: But who do you say that I am? Simon Peter answered and said: Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answering, said to them Blessed art thou, Simon BarJona, because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but My Father Who is in heaven: and I say to thee: that thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church whoever thou shalt bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven. And whatsoever though shalt loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven.

Offertory

Mt. 16:18-19
Tu es Petrus et super hance petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. Et portae inferi non praevalebunt adversus eam: et tibi dabo claves regni coelorum.

Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven.

Secret(s)

Eccleasiae tuae, quaesumus, Domine, preces et hostias beati Petri Apostoli commendet oratio: ut quod pro illius gloria celebramus, nobis porsit ad veniam. May the prayer of the blessed Apostle Peter, we beseech Thee, O Lord, commend unto Thee the petitions and offerings of Thy Church: and as a result may the sacrifice we celebrate to give honor to him be effual for pardon to us.

2nd Secret of St. Paul

Apostoli tui Pauli preceibus, Domine, plebis tuae dona sanctifica: et quae tibi tuio grata sunt instiuto, gratiora fiant patrocinio supplicantis. Per Dominum nostrum.

A the prayer of Thine Apostle Paul, O Lord, so sanctify the gifts made by Thy power: that what by Thine own institution is pleasing to Thee, may by his intercession and patronage please Thee still more. Through our Lord.

Commemoration of St. Prisca

Haec hostia, quaesumus, Domine, quam Sanctorum tuorum natalitia recensentes offerimus, et vincula nostrae pravitatis absolvat, et tuae nobis misericordiae dona conbiliet. Per Dominum nostrum.

We beseech Thee, O Lord, may this Sacrifice which we offer in commemoration of the heavenly birthday of Thy Saints , both loosen the bonds of our iniquity and obtain for us the gifts of Thy mercy. Through our Lord.

Preface
Preface of the Apostles

Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare: Te, Domine suppliciter exorare, ut gregem tuum pastor aeterne, non desera: sed perbeatos apostoles tuo contuinua protectione custodias. Ut iisdem rectoribus gubernetur quos operis tui vicarios eidem contulisti praeese pastores. Et ideo cum Angelis et Archangelis, cum Thronis et Domninatinoibus, comque omni militia coelestis exercitus, hymnum gloriae tuae canimus, sine fine dicentes:

It it truly meet and just, right and for our salvation, humbly to entreat Thee, Lord, that Thou wilt not desert Thy flock, eternal Shepherd: but through Thy blessed Apostles wilt keep it under Thy constant protection: that it may be governed by those same vicars of Thy work who Thou didst put in charge as its pastors. And therefore with all ther ost of the heavenly army we sing a hymn to Thy glory evermore saying:

Communion

Mt. 16:18
Tu es Petrus et super hance petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam.

Thou are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church.

Postcommunion(s)

Laetificet nos, Domine, munus oblatum: ut, sicut in Apostolo tuo Petro te minrabilem prasedicamus, sic per illum tuae sumamus indulgentiae largitatem.

May the gift which we have offered fill us with joy, O Lord: that as we proclaim Thee wonderful in Thine Apostle Peter, so we may though him receive the grace of Thy forgiveness.

2nd Postcommunion of St. Paul

Sanctificati, Domine salutari mysterio: quaesumus; ut novis ejus non desit oratio, cujus nos donasti patrio cinio gubernari. Per Dominum nostrum. We have been sanctified by this saving mystery, O Lord, and beseech Thee: that he whom Thou hast given us as patron and guide, may not fail to pray for us. Through the Lord.

Commemoration of St. Prisca
Quaesumus, Domine salutaribus repleti mysterriis: ut, cujus solemnia celbramus, ejus orationibus adjuvemur. Per Dominum nostrum.

We beseech Thee, O Lord, that we who have been fed with these saving mysteries, may ever be helped by the prayers of her whose festival we are keeping. Through our Lord.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Sources: Saint Andrew Daily Missal and the Marian Missal ,1945 Bio: Catholic Encyclopedia 1913 edition and Butler’s Lives of the Saints, Monks of Norcia clicking HERE for information and of course to Deo Volente and his Traditional Latin Mass in Maryland blog for all his hard work by clicking HERE.


† Prayer for the Preservation of Faith and the Vicar of Christ †

21 February 2013

From the website Catholic Harbor of Faith and Morals…

O my Redeemer, will that terrible moment ever come, when but few Christians will be found animated with a spirit of faith? that moment when, provoked to indignation, Thou wilt remove from us thy protection? The vices, the evil habits of our children, have perhaps irrevocably moved thy justice this very day to vengeance! O Thou who art the author and finisher of our faith, we conjure Thee, in the bitterness of our hearts, humbled and contrite, not to permit the beautiful light of faith to be extinguished in us. Be mindful of thy mercies of old, cast a compassionate regard upon that vine which Thou hast planted with thy right hand, which was bedewed with the sweat of the Apostles, watered with the precious blood of thousands upon thousands of martyrs and the tears of so many generous penitents, and made fruitful by the prayers of so many confessors and innocent virgins.

O divine Mediator, have regard for those zealous souls who incessantly raise their hearts to Thee and pray for the maintenance of that most precious treasure, the true Faith. Suspend, O must just God, the decree of our reprobation, turn away thine eyes from our sins, and fix them on the adorable blood, shed upon the Cross as the price of salvation, and daily pleading for it, on our behalf, upon our altars. Oh, preserve us in the true Catholic Roman Faith. Infirmities afflict us, annoyances wear us away, misfortunes oppress us: but preserve to us thy holy faith ; for, endowed with this precious gift, we shall willingly bear every sorrow, and nothing can affect our happiness. On the other hand, without this supreme treasure of the faith, our misfortunes will be unspeakable and immense.

O good Jesus, author of our faith, keep it pure; keep us safe within the barque of Peter, faithful and obedient to his successor, thy True Vicar here on earth, that so the unity of holy Church may be preserved, holiness fostered, the Holy See kept free and protected, and the universal Church extended, to the advantage of souls.

O Jesus, author of our faith, humble and convert the enemies of thy Church ; bestow on all Kings and Christian Princes, and on all the faithful, peace and true unity; strengthen and maintain all in thy holy service, to the end that we may live by Thee and die in Thee. Ah! my Jesus, author of our faith, in Thee I would live, and in Thee would I die. Amen.

(Indulgence 300 days–Leo XIII.)


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